ISOMERS

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Organic chemistry is mainly based on the CARBON molecule and its compounds . Carbon atom which always forms a covalent bond because of having 4 valence electrons in its outer most shell, also obeys the property of CATENATION which is actually a process in which carbon atom combines with itself to form long chains. This property of carbon has led to developement of another property of ISOMERISM .

ISOMER - An isomer is a molecule with the same molecular formula as another molecule, but with a different chemical structure. That is an isomer contain the same number of atoms of each element, but have different arrangements of their atoms. Isomers do not necessarily share similar properties ,unless they have the same functional group. There are two main forms of isomerism:-

1. STRUCTURAL ISOMERS - A structural isomer is also referred to as constitutional isomers in which the atoms and the functional groups are joined  together in different ways. This group includes the following --

a. Chain Isomers : the length of the chain changes but the position of the functional group changes.

b. Position Isomers : the length of the chain remains same but the position of functional group changes.

c. Functional Isomers : only the functional group changes.

for example lets take ALKANES as the functional group and see the different forms of isomerism 

a. Butane { C4H10 } 

b. Butene {C4H8 } 

                                                                  Image result for position isomer of pentene                                              

c. Butanol  { C4H9OH }        Methyl Propanol  { C4H10O }     

2 STEREOISOMERS - In stereoisomers the bond structure remains the same, but the geometrical positioning of atoms and functional groups in space differs . This class includes

ENANTIOMERS  - These are non -superposable mirror images of each other

DIASTEREOMERS - They include chiral centres but some do not have them.

Thus to sum up I would say that the isomers play a very important role in organic chemistry, helping us to differentiate between various carbon chains ,having different structural and chemical properties .

Posted By : Ayush Bhala, Class 10, GOODLEY PUBLIC SCHOOL
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PAVAN NARWADE

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Posted on : 19-02-2018 11:25:35

SARTHAK

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Posted on : 24-02-2018 11:59:02

JAY JYOTI SCHOOL

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Posted on : 11-03-2018 01:47:35

K.ruthvik

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Posted on : 11-03-2018 07:56:31

K.ruthvik

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Posted on : 11-03-2018 07:57:17

Raya Karmakar

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Posted on : 13-03-2018 10:39:39

Venkata Akshaya Sri.U

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Posted on : 13-04-2018 02:43:44

Dilip Kumar

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Posted on : 04-05-2018 07:09:23

Prince Kumar

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Posted on : 04-05-2018 08:15:57