• Arthur Harden was born on October 12, 1865, Manchester, United Kingdom. He was educated at Tettenhall College, Staffordshire, and Owens College (now the University of Manchester). He has worked with Otto Fischer at Erlangen for about a year with  the Dalton Scholarship in Chemistry. He worked as lecturer and demonstrator at  Manchester and latter moved to  British Institute of Preventive Medicine. He obtained the Doctor of Science (D.Sc.) degree from Victoria University  in 1902.   He was elevated to the  Head of the Biochemical Department, and continued in that position  until his retirement in 1930.
  • Arthur Harden received Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1929  "for their investigations carried out on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes". He shared the Nobel Prize along with Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-Chelpin. . At the time of receiving the award, Arthur Harden was affiliated with London University, London, United Kingdom.
  • The fermentation of sugar into alcohol is the basis for bread as well as beer and wine. After Eduard Buchner discovered that fermentation is driven by chemical substances, enzymes formed by yeast fungi, details involved in the process still needed to be clarified. At first, it was believed that fermentation was caused by a uniform enzyme, but when Arthur Harden filtered yeast extract through a very fine filter, he found two different substances, both of which were essential to the fermentation process: the real enzyme and a coenzyme. He showed that phosphoric acid also plays an important role in the process.
  • Arthur Harden received the prestigious Fellow of the Royal Society,  and also the Davy Medal. Harden died on 17 June 1940, in Bourne, United Kingdom.
  • Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-Chelpin was born on February 15, 1873 in Augsburg, Germany.
  • His higher studies in chemistry  at  the University of Berlin under Emil Fischer and A. Rosenheim, and physics under E. Warburg and Max Planck. He has obtained his doctoral degree in 1895 he received from University of Berlin.
  • Euler-Chelpin carried out his research at Royal University,  Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden from  1906 to 1929 as Professor of general and organic chemistry. He was also provided his guidance to Vitamin Institute and Institute of Biochemistry at Stockholm  as its  first director from 1929 to 1941. He has continued his research in the same institute  after his retirement also.
  • Euler-Chelpin received Chemistry Nobel Prize in 1929  for his  investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes along with Arthur Harden.

  • The fermentation of sugar to form alcohol is the basis for bread, beer, and wine. Once Eduard Buchner discovered that fermentation is powered by chemical substances, yeast enzymes, which are formed by yeast fungi, the task became to elucidate the details of the process. After Arthur Harden demonstrated that the process requires both a main yeast enzyme and a coenzyme and that phosphoric acid plays an important role in the process, Hans von Euler-Chelpin and his associates were able to develop an even more detailed understanding of the process in the 1910s and 1920s

  • Euler-Chelpin was the great-great-great grandson of Leonhard Euler, one of the most eminent mathematicians of the 18th century and is held to be one of the greatest in history. Interestingly, his son Ulf von Euler, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1970.

  • Hans von Euler-Chelpin died on November 6, 1964 in Stockholm, Sweden.

Contributed by Dr K Shiva Shanker, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad